For those looking for technical papers on
modeling lightning and coupling to antennas..
Sorry, some don't have the abstracts.
Pokharel03 ? Pokharel, R.K., Ishii, M., Baba, Y,
?Numerical EM Analysis of Lightning Induced
Voltage over Ground of Finite Conductivity?, IEEE
Trans EM Compat., v45, #4, Nov 2003, p651656
Krider92  Krider, E.P., ?On the electromagnetic
fields, Poynting vector, and peak power radiated
by lightning return strokes,? J. Geophys. Res.,
vol. 97, pp. 15,91315,917, Oct. 1992.
Abstract: The initial radiation fields, Poynting
vector, and total electromagnetic power that a
vertical return stroke radiates into the upper
half space have been computed when the speed of
the stroke, , is a significant fraction of the
speed of light, c, assuming that at large
distances and early times the source is an
infinitesimal dipole. The initial current is also
assumed to satisfy the transmissionline model
with a constant and to be perpendicular to an
infinite, perfectly conducting ground. The effect
of a large is to increase the radiation fields by
a factor of (1 2 cos2 ) 1, where = /c and is
measured from the vertical, and the Poynting
vector by a factor of (1 2 cos2 ) 2. This
increase is just a few percent or less at small ,
but when =0.67, the fields are about 80% larger
at small and 50% larger at =30°, and the power
that is radiated is increased by 26%. When =0.5
and the peak current is 30 kA, typical values for
negative first strokes, the peak power that is
radiated into the upper hemisphere is 1.0×1010 W.
Wait00 ?Wait, J.R, Hill, D.A., ?Ground wave of an
idealized lightning return stroke?, IEEE Trans
Ant Prop, v48, #9, pp13491353, Sep 2000
Abstract: We model a lightning return stroke by a
vertical traveling wave of current with a complex
propagation constant. The Sommerfeldintegral
analysis is similar to that of a vertical
electric dipole over a lossy earth except that
the source is distributed in height. When the
integration over the source current is performed
analytically, an extra term appears in addition
to the classical Sommerfeld attenuation function.
This term is a result of the heightgain function
of the distributed source due to an effective
elevated height of the source dipole moment. In
most eases of interest, the extra term is small
and the heightgain function is not much larger
than one. The results have application to remote
sensing of lightning from a groundbased observer
Ishii00 ? Ishii,M., Baba,Y.,?Advanced
computational methods in lightning performance.
The Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC2)?,
IEEE Power Engr Soc, Winter Meeting, 2000, v4, 2327 Jan 2000, pp24192424
Clancy06  Clancy, T.J.; Brown, C.G., Jr.; Ong,
M.M.; Clark, G.A., ?Lightning protection
certification for high explosives facilities at
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory?, IEEE Ant
Prop Soc Intl Symp 2006, 914 July 2006, pp 11631166
Lupo00  Lupo, G. Petrarca, C. Tucci,
V. Vitelli, M., ?EM fields associated with
lightning channels: on the effect of tortuosity
and branching?, IEEE Trans EM Compat, v42, #4, pp 394404, Nov 2000
Abstract: Usually the electric and magnetic
fields associated with lightning have been
computed by assuming the lightning current to be
contained in a straight vertical channel of
negligible cross section above a flat perfectly
conducting plane. Such a model, which does not
take into account that real lightning is
characterized by tortuosity and branching, is not
able to justify the fine structure of the fields
radiated by lightning discharges whose
timedomain behavior exhibits a jagged shape with
remarkable spectral content in several bands of
practical interest. In this work the effect of
channel tortuosity and branching is investigated
by adopting a suitable numerical technique. The
discharge channel has been regarded as a fractal
antenna whose associated EM field has been
evaluated by superimposing the contribution of
the single line radiators composing the whole
channel. Such a field has been compared with that
generated by a simple dipole antenna in order to
study the influence of the fractal nature of the
channel on the generated EM fields. The
relationship between the fractal dimension of the
discharge channel and the fractal dimension of
the generated time domain EM fields has been
considered and the influence played on such a
relationship by the distance between EM source
and observation point has also been studied by
analyzing the fields evaluated at far and close distances
Portela98  Portela, C., ?Statistical
distribution of parameters of lightning impulses
in antennas and radar towerspractical
application examples?, Electromagnetic
Compatibility, 1998. 1998 IEEE International
Symposium on ,2428 Aug 1998, v1, pp254264
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