[Amps] Henry 2k-4 HV inductor - Tuned choke input filter

John Lyles jtml at losalamos.com
Sat Dec 16 16:03:16 EST 2017

> Date: Fri, 15 Dec 2017 10:12:23 -0800
> From: "Jim Thomson" <jim.thom at telus.net>

> ##  The ripple current ratings on these modern day electrolytics is
> a quantum improvement from years gone by.  Per the various tech notes from
> hammond, sprague, CDE, united chemi-con, etc, the consensus is the CCS
>   DC load current should be no more than the... CCS ripple current rating divided
> by 2.56


> ##  On paper, a string of lytics with a 10A   CCS ripple current rating should be good for
> a max of  3.90 A   CCS plate current.   These days, you can get ripple current ratings a lot
> higher than 10A, in a high C,  450 or 500 vdc lytic.  You can also parallel a 2nd  or 3rd string
> for more CCS ripple current.   For something like a FM broadcast TX,  running 24 hrs, 365 days
> per year,  you would want it ultra conservative.   The tech notes depict formulae for determining
> how many years to expect from modern day electrolytics.   CCS current drawn, ambient air temp
> surrounding the circumference of the lytics, loaded  B+..as a percentage of the max 450 vdc rating,
> EQ resistor value, internal leakage current, cap value in UF, etc, etc, is about all you require to come up with a good
> estimation of electrolytic life.   If you make sure the ambient temp inside the  HV cabinet is low, like
> the same as the ambient room temp, and also run the lytics at only 70-75 % of their max stamped V rating,
> and dont max out the ripple current, they will last a long time, like > 15 years.

> ##  I remember you mentioned that the resonant choke would not filter out the harmonics of the  rectification
> freq...and that additional LC sections were required.  It was to do with the.....  AM noise spec on a FM broadcast TX.
> The 240-360-480- 600 etc, etc, had to be reduced to an acceptable min level.

Yes, AM noise on analog FM signal will be evident when there is weak 
noisy reception, when the receivers of the day were not fully limiting. 
It would sound like a faint audio note, in the background. Lots of 
harmonics in it, like a Hammond organ.
> ##  A simple high C filter will kill the fundamental..and also all the harmonics.    The last B+  supply I had used 4
> CDE oil caps in series parallel.    Each was  stamped 47.6 uf  at 4.5 kvdc..and each weighed 30 lbs,so 120 lbs for the 4 x oil caps.
> So ended up with 47 uf at 9 kv.  The 4.8 kv sec of the 10 kva hypersil pole pig and FWB, netted +6700 vdc  no load.
> We paralleled an additional 100 uf via a string of  20 x 2000 uf lytics.   Its now being used on a hb  80-10m  YC-156.

The biggest capacitor we have (at work) is 230 uF, running at 23 kV. It 
used to be 30 kV but I eliminated a series tube modulator and now the 
tetrodes run continuous DC on the plate, and use grid pulsing. They are 
linear grounded grid amplifiers. In the main operation for the particle 
factory, the capacitor banks are in a steel room, and we have ~50 each 
at 4.6 uF oil filled GE caps, for each transmitter. In the test set we 
run-in new tubes and test coaxial components like loads and combiners, 
There we have 18 each of 12 uF made by Maxwell. Right now we are testing 
a new solid state crowbar system there, as don't like depending on 
mercury ignitron tubes to short out the stored energy during an 
overcurrent fault. We can drop a 31 AWG magnet wire about 2 feet long, 
across the output terminals of the capacitor bank, and it will survive. 
This is whats required with 61 kJ of stored energy, to prevent blowing 
out tubes if there is a burp inside. There are a few ohms of 
non-inductive series R between the tubes and the capacitors too. That 
resistor is very large and air-cooled as the peak plate current is as 
high as 250 Amps during the pulses.

No chokes are used in the pulsed high power amplifier filters. 
Resonances between chokes and capacitors would cause mayhem when the 
pulse repetition rate was varied over 20-120 pulses per second. This is 
similar to the bounce that is evident on old L-C filters when used with 
varying load modulation like SSB.

> ##  Some outfit in Halifax, in eastern Canada makes a 53 kw  FM TX, consisting  of  55 x 1 kw SS modules and  a
> myriad of combiners. They can be configured from anything from 1 kw to 11 kw in a bay, and multiple bays  for
> a high powered unit.   One RF module craps out, the remaining RF decks take up the slack, and po divides equally.
> RF modules and mating switchers can also be pulled hot.
> Tubes are history for FM broadcast, except for legacy equipment.   AM broadcast is barely alive in Canada, they
> all moved to the FM band years ago.   We only have 1  AM station left here on vancouver island...well established
> talk radio format.

Its Nautel. They make some very decent FM and AM rigs, all solid state. 
They are practically the leader worldwide now, although Gates Air and 
others are still quite competitive.


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