# [TowerTalk] Coax, conduit and toroids

Steve Hunt steve at karinya.net
Thu Jun 28 01:14:09 PDT 2012

```For those who still have an open mind on whether or not antenna system
balance guarantees zero voltage across the CM choke, I've sketched an
equivalent circuit showing various currents, voltages and impedances at
the feedpoint of a coax-fed dipole:

http://www.karinya.net/g3txq/temp/choke_voltag.png

Note:

* Z1 and Z2 together represent the dipole's impedance; if the dipole is
perfectly symmetrical wrt ground Z1 = Z2
* Vd and Id are the differential mode signals delivered by the coax
feedline at the feedpoint.
* Vcm is the voltage wrt ground of the coax braid at the feedpoint
* Zcm represents the impedance of the CM choke mounted at the feedpoint
* Zx represents the CM path impedance along the coax braid outer surface
back to ground

Analysis:

* If there were no CM path, the system would be balanced and the current
into side 1 of the dipole, I1, would equal the current in the other side Id

* The existence of the CM path potentially allows a common-mode current
Icm to flow, leading to a disparity between the dipole leg currents Id
and I1

* We attempt to make Zchoke as high as possible in order to minimise
Icm, and equalise I1 and Id

* In the situation where we have achieved balance, Icm = 0 and Vcm =
Vd/2; note that Vcm is NOT zero under balanced conditions!

* The proportion of Vcm appearing across the choke will be Zchoke /
(Zchoke + Zx)

* Under balanced conditions, the only way the choke voltage can be zero
is the trivial case where Zchoke is zero, or the special case where Zx
is infinite; if that special case pertains, the choke is redundant
because Icm would be zero anyway.

All of the above can be demonstrated using simple NEC modelling.

Hence my statement that balance does _not_ lead to zero CM voltage
across the choke.

73,
Steve G3TXQ

```