Why QRO arcs?

W8JITom at aol.com W8JITom at aol.com
Tue Apr 9 12:12:18 EDT 1996

Hi Mario,
In a message dated 96-04-09 08:07:30 EDT, you write:

>Theoretical peak voltage on sinus driven amplifier is TWICE the power supply
>DC voltage (including less than 180 deg. conducting class C configurations).

That is true only for a properly loaded tank, or class A amplifier Mario. The
design parameters are definable, but complex, for peak voltage in an unloaded
tank in an amplifier with less than 360 degree conduction angle. Remember the
tube is a variable resistance that "tugs" the tank circuit, it does not
source energy or voltage. The tank voltage can easily overshoot the design
anode voltage in amplifiers with conduction angle of less than 360 degrees.

When you get a moment, sit down with a high power FET, a bias supply, a
parallel resonant tank, and a RF generator.

With 12 volts on the drain of a MRF 150, biased at the class A side of class
B (185 degrees of conduction when properly loaded), I can measure 100 volts
of drain voltage with an unloaded tank. I think the "two times rule" comes
from oversimplification that the tube is somehow an energy source instead of
a time varying resistance in series with a diode, and that failure to
understand the conduction angle shortens as the load is removed.

The anode voltage not only overshoots the supply by more than double in the
positive direction, the anode voltage can actually over shoot zero and go
negative for part of the cycle, decreasing the conduction angle!

This is a whole chapter in a book to explain, but the test example is easy to
build. Make no mistake about it, the *peak* tank voltage can easily be more
than double the anode supply voltage in a mistuned amplifier. I have no doubt
at all about that.
>>But PSU DC voltage might be higher in
>the cases of unregulated power supply and exceed capacitor arcing threshold.
>Detuned output circuit gives even less power with a devastating dissipation!

The actual QC acceptance voltage breakdown of the cap in the 220 was 3500
volts peak, allowing a tank voltage swing of 7000 volts peak to peak. If the
two times rule was true, the capacitor would never be able to arc!

>S5/K4XU told me once: SB-220 is an excellent example of properly engineered
>QRO with optimally selected RF components!

Absolutely!! Everything is as small as it can safely be be for the job it was
intended to do. There is no one single weak spot. The 220 is EXCELLENT
engineering. An example of poor design would be use of a switch rated much
more than the voltage of related components. It's wasted money.

>If ones needs * several times * DC supply voltage like in TV horizontal PSU,
>sharp and hard pulse driving is required to excite inductor with high dI/dt
>ratio and then peak turn-off voltages go sky-high!  We expierence that when
>fast switching relay coils and therefore add protection diode OR capacitor!

Try building the FET test example. It's simple and non-destructive. Only for
full class A is the supply voltage the limit of tank input voltage swing.
With any class less than A, overshoot is possible. Overshoot increases as
conduction angle is decreased. The two times rule only applies to a properly
loaded tank, or a class A amplifier.

73 Tom

>From bhorn at netcom.com (Bruce Horn)  Tue Apr  9 16:22:34 1996
From: bhorn at netcom.com (Bruce Horn) (Bruce Horn)
Date: Tue, 9 Apr 1996 08:22:34 -0700
Subject: Contest Calendar 96.4
Message-ID: <199604091522.IAA13033 at netcom19.netcom.com>

                              CONTEST CALENDAR
                         Apr 9, 1996 Edition (96.4)

Please send corrections and additions directly to me.  I will
post an updated calendar on a monthly basis.

73 de Bruce, WA7BNM   (bhorn at netcom.com)

The contest calendar is divided into two sections:
  1) CONTEST CALENDAR: Calendar showing dates and times of scheduled
  2) CONTEST LOG SUBMITTAL DEADLINES: Deadlines and addresses for
                       submitting logs for contests that have
                       already occurred or whose deadline will pass
                       before the next issue of the calendar.

Please note that you may not be able to operate during all of the total
hours of the contests listed below. Total operating time may also vary
by entry category. See individual contest rules for allowed operating

April, 1996

  DXYL - NAYL Contest, CW        1400Z, Apr 10 to 0200Z, Apr 12
  Japan Int.DX Contest, 20-10m   2300Z, Apr 12 to 2300Z, Apr 14
  Int. HF GridLoc Contest        1200Z, Apr 13 to 1200Z, Apr 14
  QRP ARCI Spring QSO Party, CW  1200Z, Apr 13 to 2400Z, Apr 14
  UBA HF 80m Contest             0700-1100Z, Apr 14
  ARRL 144 MHz Spring Sprint     1900-2300 local time, Apr 15
  EU Spring Sprint, SSB          1500Z-1859Z, Apr 20
  SP DX RTTY Contest             1200Z, Apr 20 to 2400Z, Apr 21
  ARRL 222 MHz Spring Sprint     1900-2300 local time, Apr 23
  DXYL - NAYL Contest, SSB       1400Z, Apr 26 to 0200Z, Apr 28
  South Carolina QSO Party       0000Z, Apr 27 to 0400Z, Apr 28
  YU DX Contest                  1200Z, Apr 27 to 1200Z, Apr 28
  Helvetia Contest               1300Z, Apr 27 to 1300Z, Apr 28
  QRP to the Field               1300Z, Apr 27 to 0100Z, Apr 28
  Nebraska QSO Party             1700Z, Apr 27 to 1659Z, Apr 28
  Tenth Internet CW Sprint       0100-0300Z, Apr 28

May, 1996

  ARRL 432 MHz Spring Sprint     1900-2300 local time, May 1
  Texas QSO Party                1400Z, May 4 to 2200Z, May 5
  MTARA VHF/UHF Contest          1400 local time, May 4 to 1800 local time, May 5
  Massachusetts QSO Party        1800Z, May 4 to 0400Z, May 5 & 1100Z-2100Z, May 5
  ARRL 902 MHz Spring Sprint     0600-1300 local time, May 11
  ARRL 1296 MHz Spring Sprint    0600-1300 local time, May 11
  ARRL 2304 MHz Spring Sprint    0600-1300 local time, May 11
  Volta WW RTTY Contest          1200Z, May 11 to 1200Z, May 12
  CQM International DX Contest   2100Z, May 11 to 2100Z, May 12
  EU Spring Sprint, CW           1500Z-1859Z, May 18
  ARRL 50 MHz Spring Sprint      2300Z May 18 to 0300Z, May 19
  CQWW WPX Contest, CW           0000Z, May 25 to 2400Z, May 26

June, 1996

  European Field Day, CW         1500Z, Jun 1 to 1500Z, Jun 2
  ANARTS WW RTTY Test            0000Z, Jun 8 to 2400Z, Jun 9
  TOEC WW Grid Contest, Phone    1200Z, Jun 8 to 1200Z, Jun 9
  Asia-Pacific Sprint            1230-1430Z, Jun 8
  ARRL June VHF QSO Party        1800Z, Jun 8 to 0300Z, Jun 10
  ARRL Field Day                 1800Z, Jun 22 to 2100Z, Jun 23
  RGSB 1.8 MHz Contest, CW       2100Z, Jun 22 to 0100Z, Jun 23

July, 1996

  RAC Canada Day Contest         0000Z-2400Z, Jul 1
  World Radiosport Team Champ.   1200Z, Jul 13 to 0600Z, Jul 14
  IARU HF World Championship     1200Z, Jul 13 to 1200Z, Jul 14
  DIE Contest                    0500Z-1300Z, Jul 14
  RGSB Low Power Field Day, CW   0900Z-1200Z and 1300Z-1600Z, Jul 14
  RGSB IOTA Contest              1200Z, Jul 27 to 1200Z, Jul 28

August, 1996

  European HF Championship       1000-2200Z, Aug 3
  ARRL UHF Contest               1800Z, Aug 3 to 1800Z, Aug 4
  North Amer. QSO Party, CW      1800Z, Aug 3 to 0600Z, Aug 4
  SARTG WW RTTY Contest          0000Z, Aug 17 to 1600Z, Aug 18
  ARRL 10 GHz Cumul. Contest     0800-2000 local time, Aug 17 and Aug 18
  North Amer. QSO Party, Phone   1800Z, Aug 17 to 0600Z, Aug 18
  TOEC WW Grid Contest, CW       1200Z, Aug 24 to 1200Z, Aug 25
  Utah Centennial QSO Party      Aug 24 to Aug 25

September, 1996

  European Field Day, SSB        1500Z, Sep 7 to 1500Z, Sep 8
  North American Sprint, CW      0000Z-0359Z, Sep 8
  ARRL September VHF QSO Party   1800Z, Sep 14 to 0300Z, Sep 16
  North American Sprint, Phone   0000Z-0359Z, Sep 15
  ARRL 10 GHz Cumul. Contest     0800-2000 local time, Sep 21 and Sep 22
  Scandinavian Act. Contest, CW  1500Z, Sep 21 to 1800Z, Sep 22
  CQ Worldwide Contest, RTTY     0000Z, Sep 28 to 2400Z, Sep 29
  Scandinavian Act. Contest, SSB 1500Z, Sep 28 to 1800Z, Sep 29

October, 1996

  VK/ZL Contest, Phone           1000Z, Oct 5 to 1000Z, Oct 6
  EU Autumn Sprint, SSB          1500Z-1859Z, Oct 5
  California QSO Party           1600Z, Oct 5 to 2200Z, Oct 6
  RGSB 21/28 MHz Contest, SSB    0700Z-1900Z, Oct 6
  VK/ZL Contest, CW              1000Z, Oct 12 to 1000Z, Oct 13
  EU Autumn Sprint, CW           1500Z-1859Z, Oct 12
  JARTS WW RTTY Contest          0000Z, Oct 19 to 2400Z, Oct 20
  Asia-Pacific Sprint            1230-1430Z, Oct 19
  Worked All Germany Contest     1600Z, Oct 19 to 1600Z, Oct 20
  RGSB 21/28 MHz Contest, CW     0700Z-1900Z, Oct 20
  CQ Worldwide Contest, Phone    0000Z, Oct 26 to 2400Z, Oct 27

November, 1996  (U.S hams should note that CQWW is before Thanksgiving)

  ARRL Sweepstakes, CW           2100Z, Nov 2 to 0300Z, Nov 4
  High Speed Club CW Contest     0900-1100Z and 1500-1700Z, Nov 3
  Japan Int.DX Contest, Phone    2300Z, Nov 8 to 2300Z, Nov 10
  WAE RTTY Contest               1200Z, Nov 9 to 2400Z, Nov 10
  ARRL Sweepstakes, Phone        2100Z, Nov 16 to 0300Z, Nov 18
  RGSB 1.8 MHz Contest, CW       2100Z, Nov 16 to 0100Z, Nov 17
  CQ Worldwide Contest, CW       0000Z, Nov 23 to 2400Z, Nov 24

December, 1996

  ARRL 160-Meter Contest         2200Z,.Dec 6 to 1600Z, Dec 8
  ARRL 10-Meter Contest          0000Z, Dec 14 to 2400Z, Dec 15
  TARA RTTY Sprint               2100Z, Dec 14 to 0100Z, Dec 15
End of calendar section

Please consult the individual contest rules to determine what log
documentation must be submitted (i.e. summary sheet, dupe sheets, etc.).

  FISTS Novice Roundup           April 9, 1996
    E-mail:  (none)
    Mail:  Peter Kozup, K8OUA
           5115 N. Park Ave.
           Warren, OH  44481

  REF Contest, CW                April 15, 1996
    E-mail:  (none)
    Mail:  Reseau des Emetteurs Francais
           REF Contest
           BP 2129
           37021 Tours Cedex, France

  CLARA and Family HF Contest    April 15, 1996
    E-mail:  (none)
    Mail:  Renee Devenny, VO2RD/VE3
           Box 149
           Osgoode, ON  K0A 2W0

  Virginia QSO Party             April 15, 1996
    E-mail:  (none)
    Mail:  Virginia QSO Party
           Call Box 599
           Sterling, VA  20167

  Russian DX Contest             (unknown, contest ended Mar 17)
    E-mail:  (none)
    Mail:  Russian DX Contest Manager, RA1ANO
           P.O. Box 122
           St. Petersburg-241
           192241 Russia

  SP DX Contest                  April 30, 1996
    E-mail:  (none)
    Mail:  Polski Zwiazek Krotkofalowcow
           P.O. Box 320
           00-950 Warsaw

  Tenth Internet CW Sprint       May 1, 1996 (0300Z)
    E-mail:  n6tr at contesting.com
    Mail:  (none)

  EU Spring Sprint, SSB          May 5, 1996
    E-mail:  eusprint at dl6rai.mue.de
    Mail:  Dave Lawley, G4BUO
           Carramore, Coldharbour Road, Penshurst
           Kent  TN11 8EX, England, UK

  UBA HF 80m Contest             May 5, 1996
    E-mail:  (none)
    Mail:  Jan Reynders, ON4ARY
           Schoonderbeukenweg 320
           B-3202 Rillaar

  CQWW WPX Contest, Phone        May 10, 1996
    E-mail:  n8bjq at erinet.com
    Mail:  CQ Magazine, WPX Contest, Phone
           76 N. Broadway
           Hicksville, NY  11801

  DXYL - NAYL Contest, CW        May 12, 1996
    E-mail:  (none)
    Mail:  Carol Hugentober, K8DHK
           4441 Andreas Ave.
           Cincinnati, OH  45211

  QRP ARCI Sprint QSO Party      May 13, 1996
    E-mail:  (none)
    Mail:  QRP ARCI Contest Manager
           Cam Hartford, N6GA
           1959 Bridgeport Ave.
           Claremont, CA  91711

  EA WW RTTY Contest            May 15, 1996
    E-mail:  (none)
    Mail:  EA RTTY Contest Manager
           Antonio Alcolado, EA1MV
           P.O. Box 240
           09400 Aranda de Duero, Burgos

  Holyland DX Contest            May 31, 1996
    E-mail:  (none)
    Mail:  Contest Manager
           Israel Amateur Radio Club
           Box 17600
           Tel Aviv  61176

  Bermuda Contest                June 1, 1996
    E-mail:  (none)
    Mail:  Radio Society of Bermuda
           Contest Committee
           P.O. Box HM 275
           Hamilton HM AX, Bermuda
End of log submittal deadlines

>From Del Seay <seay at alaska.net>  Tue Apr  9 14:17:38 1996
From: Del Seay <seay at alaska.net> (Del Seay)
Date: Tue, 09 Apr 1996 06:17:38 -0700
Subject: Why QRO arcs?
References: <13531 at s55tcp.ampr.org>
Message-ID: <316A6372.3DAA at alaska.net>

Marijan Miletic wrote:
> Tom, W8JIT repeated the following false and misleading statement:
> >When an amplifier operating in class AB through C is lightly loaded, the peak
> >anode and tank voltage can be * several times * the anode supply voltage.
> >This is caused by the loaded Q of the tank circuit increasing, and the tube
> >being driven into and out of saturation, by high drive power and light anode
> >loading. The effect is actually caused by the tube "ringing" the tank at the
> >operating frequency, not at VHF.
> Theoretical peak voltage on sinus driven amplifier is TWICE the power supply
> DC voltage (including less than 180 deg. conducting class C configurations).
> If the amplifier output circuit is tuned on resonant frequency but lightly
> loaded, it will represent high impedanse and therefore current consumption
> will be low giving LOW power output.  But PSU DC voltage might be higher in
> the cases of unregulated power supply and exceed capacitor arcing threshold.
> Detuned output circuit gives even less power with a devastating dissipation!
> SB-220 DC doubler gives 2.7kV plate voltage while idling in the SSB position.
> When properly loaded with 700mA plate current, it drops to 2kV effectively
> limiting SB-220 output power long before 3-500Z's capabilities are exausted.
> In the CW/TUNE position, just 2kV are generated making life easier for the
> "tune" variable capacitor.
> S5/K4XU told me once: SB-220 is an excellent example of properly engineered
> QRO with optimally selected RF components!
> If ones needs * several times * DC supply voltage like in TV horizontal PSU,
> sharp and hard pulse driving is required to excite inductor with high dI/dt
> ratio and then peak turn-off voltages go sky-high!  We expierence that when
> fast switching relay coils and therefore add protection diode OR capacitor!
> Energy is always preserved otherwise we are talking perpetum mobile...
> 73 de Mario, S56A, N1YU.

You fella's have surely designed more amps than I have, but an
observation may be in order.
Arcing at the plate circuit of an amp can be from both high
dc voltage (underrated components) and rf voltage from again, several
sources. Light loading indeed causes the rf voltage to be considerably
higher in amplitude, but it is quite common to see vhf oscillations
in amps, especially when tuning on 10 meters. And those rf voltages
can be extremely high.
de KL7HF

>From aa4lr at radio.org (Bill Coleman AA4LR)  Tue Apr  9 16:32:55 1996
From: aa4lr at radio.org (Bill Coleman AA4LR) (Bill Coleman AA4LR)
Date: Tue, 9 Apr 1996 11:32:55 -0400
Subject: Greasing Crank-Ups
Message-ID: <v01540b05ad90314ab98f@[]>

>        Has anyone come up with an easier way to grease their crank-up
>towers other than tipping them over and smearing each articulating tower
>leg with grease? Is there a spray on type of lubricant that could be used
>instead? Is an annual smearing of the grease appropriate or should this be
>a bi-annual festivity?


I'm thinking of putting up a crank-up in the near future. I was considering
using LPS 3. LPS makes a variety of silicone spray lubricants of various
weights. The most popular are the varieties labelled LPS 1, 2 and 3.

LPS 1 is a very light penetrating lubricant. It has almost no waxy
components, so it is rather ephemeral. You'd use it in places where you
might use WD-40. (Reader's note: pick up a can of WD-40 and notice that NO
WHERE does it use the word "lubricant")

LPS 2 is a heavier lubricant with some waxy components. It weathers much
better and tends to stick around. I use LPS 2 on my aircraft control
surface hinges.

LPS 3 is a rather waxy lubricant. It is mostly used as a corrosion
inhibitor. It would certainly work well on crank-up cables. I don't know
how appropriate it would be for tower legs.

If it were my crank-up, I'd grease it annually.


Bill Coleman, AA4LR      Mail: aa4lr at radio.org
Quote: "Not in a thousand years will man ever fly!"
            -- Wilbur Wright, 1901

>From David B Curtis <David_B_Curtis at ccm11.sc.intel.com>  Tue Apr  9 16:12:00 1996
From: David B Curtis <David_B_Curtis at ccm11.sc.intel.com> (David B Curtis)
Date: Tue, 09 Apr 96 08:12:00 PDT
Subject: Crap, etc
Message-ID: <Tue, 09 Apr 96 08:38:30 PDT_3 at ccm.hf.intel.com>

Annoyed by the signal to noise ratio on cq-contest?  Then start a 
moderated version of the reflector.  Just buy the hardware, put in the 
comm lines, administer the software, and spend your spare time filtering 
messages for the rest of us and replying to the flames from the guys you 
filtered out.

While I agree that the SNR here could stand improvement, I want all the 
complainers and gripers to stop whining like a bunch of SSTV'ers and 
start putting up the bucks and the time to do something better than 
cq-contest at tgv.com 

73, Dave NG0X

>From aa4lr at radio.org (Bill Coleman AA4LR)  Tue Apr  9 16:47:05 1996
From: aa4lr at radio.org (Bill Coleman AA4LR) (Bill Coleman AA4LR)
Date: Tue, 9 Apr 1996 11:47:05 -0400
Subject: Proposed New Contest Exchange
Message-ID: <v01540b07ad9035a5bfc1@[]>

>** Reply to note from aa4lr at radio.org 04/05/96 10:19am -0400
>> The difference here is that currently, copying 59(9) has no intrinsic
>> value. Since everyone sends 59, you can't tell if you are loud or weak, or
>> what conditions are like at the other end.
>Yes, BUT... If the QSO is to count for DXCC, then a signal report, however
>inaccurate, must be exchanged.

Can you cite the DXCC rule that requires this exchange of a signal report?
(I believe that the signal report may have originally been required and was
long since dropped)

Most of the WAS nets and list operations exchange signal reports for one
and only one reason -- they have to exchange SOMETHING. After all, if you
are in this type of operation, boths sides already KNOW the callsigns
because they were relayed by net control.

>Since a lot of the little guys are out there looking for DXCC contacts,
>regardless of the type of contest, removing the signal report would be a
>big mistake.

I agree with the concept that contest rules should be made attractive to
DXCC and other certificate-hunters. They are the meat-and-potatoes of

>Lets leave the rules alone. If there is not a compelling reason to do so,
>they should not be changed.

How do we know if a change is compelling or not if we don't examine it?

Bill Coleman, AA4LR      Mail: aa4lr at radio.org
Quote: "Not in a thousand years will man ever fly!"
            -- Wilbur Wright, 1901

>From aa4lr at radio.org (Bill Coleman AA4LR)  Tue Apr  9 16:47:03 1996
From: aa4lr at radio.org (Bill Coleman AA4LR) (Bill Coleman AA4LR)
Date: Tue, 9 Apr 1996 11:47:03 -0400
Subject: Another Attack on Contesting and non-contest QRG
Message-ID: <v01540b06ad9034527002@[]>

>In a message dated 96-04-08 14:52:00 EDT, you write:
>>I don't see why we contesters have to change OUR practice of the hobby on a
>>few weekends a year to suit those who are too lazy to avoid the problem in
>>the first place.
>   I agree!  And, if memory serves correct, there are other modes that aren't
>even being used at all during a particular contest weekend (i.e. Cw on a SSB
>weekend, etc.).

73 magazine had an editorial (not Wayne, the other guy) a couple of years
ago about contest-free zones. I wrote a letter to the magazine and made
exactly these arguments:

* Contests are generally single mode -- use the other mode
* No contests are on 30m, 17m and 12m -- use these bands
* Contests are generally low in the band -- use higher frequencies to avoid
* Contests are fun -- jump in and enjoy with the rest

Of course, they didn't publish my letter....

>   One caution, don't forget the eternal law -- the squeaky wheel gets
>greased.  Somebody squeaked enough to get that part of 10M set aside.
> Apparently us contesters aren't squeaky enough.

I can ALMOST understand the 10m thing. Given that a fair number of novices
and tech-plus operators have sole access to HF phone on 28.3-28.5 -- they
don't have the option of going anywhere when the contest hits. In contrast,
General and above operators can choose to go to other HF bands to operate

Maybe the solution is to open up 12m phone to Novices and Tech-plus operators.

Bill Coleman, AA4LR      Mail: aa4lr at radio.org
Quote: "Not in a thousand years will man ever fly!"
            -- Wilbur Wright, 1901

>From Richard Riley #7122" <RRILEY%ESA.bitnet at listserv.gmd.de  Tue Apr  9 23:57:07 1996
From: Richard Riley #7122" <RRILEY%ESA.bitnet at listserv.gmd.de (Richard Riley #7122)
Date: Tue, 9 Apr 96 17:57:07 EST
Subject: Europeans PLEASE READ THIS QRO crap:

Mario wrote:

>However, I wouldn't add QRO to crap basket as I consider it one of the more
>important subjects in keeping our HF contesting enjoyable.  If we would stick
>to reasonable power and clean signals, good reception would improve even with
>out sun spots.


..and from the VERY limited response from Europeans to my "WE ALL USE 1-3KW"
accusation...one has to assume that this is in fact not too far from the truth.

Steve Cole (GW4BLE) was the sole person to have challenged me on the above
..and in doing so only spoke of his station!
Congrats Steve on your achievements...understand that it is the operator
skill that I think SHOULD be the most important ingredient to achieve
success in contesting and we should do our utmost to keep it this way.

My worry is that operator skill is dropping slowly down the list...

So what do I and others wish for?

I wish we (Europeans...that is....as most US stns run reasonable power levels)
would run the same sort of power (1.5K) and NO more!

Lets not argue about legality...cultural differences etc...
it'll never work...JUST LOOK AT THE EU!

A Frenchman who runs 5Kw isn't breaking the law any more so than his
neighbour running 1Kw.

Why not put a limit on the HP category...1.5KW?

It appears that contesters don't mind breaking the laws of their country

(see "signing your call"-"control op regs" or whatever...who cares!)...

...BUT they won't break, in general, the RULES of a contest.

So why not make it a rule?

Here we go again ZX!

See ya!


Richard Riley

email:  rriley%esa.bitnet at vm.gmd.de
packet: G0JFX at F6KBF

>From Chuck Brudtkuhl" <cbrudtk at uswest.com  Tue Apr  9 16:56:15 1996
From: Chuck Brudtkuhl" <cbrudtk at uswest.com (Chuck Brudtkuhl)
Date: 9 Apr 1996 09:56:15 -0600
Subject: Meter lamps et al
Message-ID: <n1383078353.16517 at ntsqm1.uswc.uswest.com>

I have seen several messages regarding lamps and their replacement:

What I have done for years is to replace all lamps either with one rated at
double the voltage, or use a series R to lower the voltage to existing lamps. 
Generally the decrease in brilliance is negligable and is more pleasing to the
eye anyway.  

When I did this to all lamps on the MLA-2500 I used to have, it looked
downright nice...glowed rather than blinded you!!  Any rig in which I have
replaced the meter lamp is also this way.  Seems to put more of a "glow" on
things and looks good.  Lamps last forever now.  And if you keep your radios
as long as I do, it tends to lower the meter graphics fade rate!

This is also a good idea in rotor control boxes....never could keep lamps in
those in the past.

Lamps of all types (even wheat germ) are available for "pennies" from several
sources.  I have never failed to find an exact replacement in a higher voltage
for all type lamps from the mail order source I use and I don't think I've
ever paid over $0.50 for the more expensive ones that I recall.


>From Moore, Frank H" <fhmoore at ingr.com  Tue Apr  9 17:18:03 1996
From: Moore, Frank H" <fhmoore at ingr.com (Moore, Frank H)
Date: Tue, 9 Apr 1996 11:18:03 -0500
Subject: In SF Bay area, 4/30-5/4
Message-ID: <c=US%a=_%p=INTERGRAPH%l=HQ7960409111803YX004E00 at hq14.pcmail.ingr.com>

It looks like I'm going to be in the SF Bay area from 4/30 to 5/4. Are
there any contest club meetings during that time? It would be nice to
meet some of the guys I work in sprints and NAQP. It's so rare that I
travel that I thought that I might get lucky. Thanks, Frank KE4GY

>From aa4lr at radio.org (Bill Coleman AA4LR)  Tue Apr  9 17:28:21 1996
From: aa4lr at radio.org (Bill Coleman AA4LR) (Bill Coleman AA4LR)
Date: Tue, 9 Apr 1996 12:28:21 -0400
Subject: QDC ?
Message-ID: <v01540b09ad903b370f26@[]>

>Asking "what's your call" and then disappearing without a QSO or
>ever IDing is not legal OM.

I never said otherwise. But just ASKING for a call without an ID isn't
illegal. It is the disappearing part that violates the regulations.

>The majority of the guys that ask
>that question are never heard from again once the call is given.

Now, what does this tell you? It signals to me that this guy probably
figured out you were a duplicate. Had you been signing more frequently, he
wouldn't have bothered you.

Of course, could be the guy is one of those ID policemen. (Another branch
of the kilocycle ('cuse me, kilohertz) cops)

>It is rare that the guy who asks the question responds with his
>call for a new qso point. Usually the ones that ask that question
>are pretty darned loud and wind up covering up other stations
>that are calling me.

Interesting. What does this tell you? I can interpret this to mean that
signing frequently is a way to avoid these loud dudes.

>If I say " QRZ KP4XS" and 3 stations call
>me at the same time I'll work one or two in a row and say QRZ
>knowing the 3rd guy will call me since he knows my call already.
>This has quickened MY pace.

If you can copy 2 or more callsigns, contacting the next guy without
signing or QRZing can speed up things. I question the wisdom of just going
QRZ? without signing. Seems to me you run the risk of the "QDC" guys this

>When the "what's your call" question
>is thrown in by the impatient guy who won't wait a few secs for
>me to give it the result is that the 3rd guy is covered up
>effectively slowing down MY rate.

If you are running, you are in control of the pileup, right? If just
signing QRZ? is going to slow you down because someone may ask you for your
call, then why do it? Why not just send your call instead?

> I now need to give my call
>again and listen for the third guy call me again while the
>"What's your call" guy continues up the band looking for the
>next guy to molest with that silly question. When I have heard 2
>or more guys calling me at once I don't need to give my call
>until I have at least worked 2 of them. They already know it.
>Can you see it now from the other end???  Ken KP4XS

Absolutely. I see a clear distinction between two cases. One is where you
heard two guys calling, and you got parts or all of both callsigns. Work
'em both - wham bam! - then sign. No argument. (You may still get a "what's
yer call" goofball every once in a while, but my impression would be of an
operator diligently trying to dispatch Qs as quickly as possible -- I'd be
more patient)

The other is where you heard two guys calling, but you didn't get any of
the second guy's call. You just know someone was out there. In this case,
it might be more expeditious to sign instead of QRZ. If you just QRZ?
instead of signing, then you invite the wrath of those who just tuned in
and mistake you for one of those goofballs who only signs after 10 minutes
if they feel like it....

Bill Coleman, AA4LR      Mail: aa4lr at radio.org
Quote: "Not in a thousand years will man ever fly!"
            -- Wilbur Wright, 1901

>From Fred Hopengarten" <k1vr at k1vr.jjm.com  Tue Apr  9 15:49:53 1996
From: Fred Hopengarten" <k1vr at k1vr.jjm.com (Fred Hopengarten)
Date: Tue, 09 Apr 1996 10:49:53 EDT
Subject: Returned mail: User unknown
Message-ID: <316a7914.k1vr at k1vr.jjm.com>

Subject:   Re: AL1200/1500 blower noise

On Mon, 8 Apr 1996 07:28:41 -0400, AB5YG at aol.com wrote:

> Subj: AL-1200 & AL-1500 - excessive blower noise

> Has anyone figured out a way to quiet these beasts??

Here's a quick and dirty way to quiet an AL-1200, all based
on the principle that "sound doesn't like to turn corners."

Take one end off a shoe box bottom and tape it over the
intake grill so that air is sucked into the box from the
back.  Take another shoe box bottom and tape it over the
"air out" grill on top of the amplifier, again pointing to
the rear, forcing air out to go away from you.

Go to an office supply store and buy the largest typewriter
pad you can find.  Go quickly.  They may no longer know what
a typewriter is.  This pad goes under the amplifier to
dampen vibration.

Now you've got a dampened box and air movement away from
your ears.  Make sure that the air is aimed at a non-
reflective surface.  Cloth or a piece of rug to absorb

In my case, I found the old typewriter pad, so the cost of
these external mods was ZERO.  They make a BIG difference.
Make those sounds of blower noise turn corners, without
creating too much eddying of air currents.

                      Fred Hopengarten K1VR
           Six Willarch Road * Lincoln, MA 01773-5105
     home + office telephone:  617/259-0088 (FAX on demand)
                   internet:  k1vr at k1vr.jjm.com
            "Big antennas, high in the sky, are better
                       than small ones, low."

>From SM7PKK <mats.persson at mbox2.swipnet.se>  Wed Apr 10 18:16:18 1996
From: SM7PKK <mats.persson at mbox2.swipnet.se> (SM7PKK)
Date: Wed, 10 Apr 1996 19:16:18 +0200
Subject: Contestreport and other stuff
Message-ID: < at mailbox.swip.net>


Why dont we get the CT/NA/TR programs to deshiffer the other stations
callsign into hexacode and add it up with our own hexa code callsign. And to
make sure it is good we also throw in the hexcode of the band and mode that
way we know that the contact is really valid well we still miss the country,
DXCC or zone so we add that one too then while we are at it we ad a checksum
for the whole thing so that the QSO can not be counted until everything is
verified by the other computer. I figure if we use a 64 or 128 bit code we
might be able to give everyone a unique hexa callsign instead of the simple
one we have now.

The solution is simple. If you want a contest to be totally different Make
up the rules and get a weekend or whatever and try run the contest to your
likings. Maybe people will like it maybe not.

HEY THIS WAS A JOKE. Soon we will be sounding like the russian spy-stations

53456 2D57C 24F8B 324A6 ... ... ... .....................

Personally I think we have the contests we need and some I like some I=
There is a reason why CQWW and WPX is so popular. Why change a winning=

Here is something to think about though. I think that there should be a
limitation to how many=20
Country Vs. the World contests over a whole weekend we have. If every
country is going to have one we soon will have to add days to the year to
fit them all in. Atleast here in EU it can become quite annoying with too
many of them around. By the QSO-rate I don=B4t think too many others are
interested either.


P.S flame away who cares...

But do it to me and not the reflector!
SM7PKK			E-mail: mats.persson at mbox2.swipnet.se
Mats Persson
S-212 14 Malmoe
Sweden			CW !!

P.S My logs are open forever.. ever.. ever..

>From WYLIE at cqm.co.uk (Tom Wylie)  Tue Apr  9 18:27:56 1996
From: WYLIE at cqm.co.uk (Tom Wylie) (Tom Wylie)
Date: Tue, 09 Apr 1996 17:27:56 +0000
Subject: ACarS
Message-ID: <199604091630.QAA14088 at hippy.colloquium.co.uk>

I know it aint DX or Contest, but do any of you guys out there know how to 
decode ACarS cheaply or a source of software?

Thanks de Tom Wylie

Colloquium Internet

>From k8mr at barf80.nshore.org (Jim Stahl)  Tue Apr  9 17:38:47 1996
From: k8mr at barf80.nshore.org (Jim Stahl) (Jim Stahl)
Date: Tue, 09 Apr 96 12:38:47 EDT
Subject: Too Much CRAP!!!
Message-ID: <cRm5LD1w165w at barf80.nshore.org>

In light of recent complaints about CRAP on the reflector, the
Contest Reflector Advisor Panel (CRAP) met to look into this
It was determined that there are way too many messages about:
   Contest Radio Analysis and Performance (CRAP).
   Covenants, Restrictions, & Antenna Politics (CRAP) 
   Contest Reports Affecting Points? (CRAP)
   Caribbean Recreation by the American Proletariat (CRAP)
   Cushcraft/Rohn Antenna Parties (CRAP) 
   CW Really Almost Pointless? (CRAP)
In conclusion, the CRAP says cut the CRAP!
Jim  K8MR    k8mr at barf80.nshore.org
Standing by for Clever Replies from Astronomy Professors (CRAP)

Jim Stahl
InterNet: k8mr at barf80.nshore.org
Basic Amateur Radio Frequency, BARF-80 +1 216/237-8208
"Totally devoted to Amateur Radio" - 24 Hrs a day 8/N/1 14.4k-300 baud

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